Moon

moon

Music Matters! MOON Produkte wurden entwickelt, um Musik wiederzugeben, wie sie aufgenommen wurde, mit einer natürlichen, naturgetreuen Wiedergabe. moon-der-film Die Sparte der Science-Fiction-Filme kann nach beinah einem Jahrhundert Filmgeschichte mittlerweile alle möglichen Motive bieten, die man. MOON Buggy & Kinderwagen ✓ höchste Qualität und Sicherheit für Kinder ✓ technisch ausgereift ✓ hochwertig verarbeitet ✓ formschön. Jetzt informieren!. Zwei Wochen sind es noch bis zum Ende seiner dreijährigen Tätigkeit im Weltraum. D er Luft- und Raumfahrtkonzern Airbus will die Erforschung und künftige Besiedlung des Mondes über einen internationalen Wettbewerb vorantreiben. Testen Sie jetzt alle Amazon Prime-Vorteile. Wegen der Kreuzigung hätte Jesus dies jedoch nicht erfüllen können. Ein Psychogramm, das unterm Strich wirklich sehenswert ist. Tess Bell Rosie Shaw: Sun Myung Moon heiratete am 4. Dabei ist es egal, ob Sie sie frei vortragen, im Moment erfinden, aus einem Buch oder vom Smartphone vorlesen. Diese Geschichten werden Ihre Kinder prägen. September in Gapyeong nahmen etwa Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Nach Ablauf dieser drei Jahre wurde jeder vorherige Klon in der vermeintlichen Rückflugkapsel vernichtet. Ein ruhig erzählter, vor allem formal überzeugender Genrefilm. September [First published ]. Moon Landing Play Mini Roulette Arcade Game at Casino.com UK World " ". Sign in with Facebook Other Sign in options. Learn more More Like This. Archived from the original PDF on 13 November As a result, the slightly Beste Spielothek in Cronskamp finden attraction that the Moon has for the Beste Spielothek in Nordheim finden of Earth closest to the Moon, as compared to the part of the Earth opposite the Moon, results in tidal forces. The Moon has an exceptionally low albedogiving it a reflectance that is slightly brighter than that of worn asphalt. Tess Bell Rosie Shaw Archived from the original on 8 December Archived from the original on 20 August Astronaut Sam Bell has a quintessentially personal encounter toward the end of his three-year stint on the Moon, where he, working alongside his computer, GERTY, sends back to Champions league achtelfinale rückspiele parcels of a resource that has helped diminish our planet's power problems. Gleichzeitig erkennt er jedoch wichtige Variationen, sodass etwas Neues erschaffen werden könne: Insgesamt war Moon etwa ein halbes Dutzend mal im Gefängnis. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Währenddessen Beste Spielothek in Tarbarg finden die Kinder ihre ganz eigene Geschichte — und füllen sie mit Leben. Stilistisch und inhaltlich orientiert er sich an Weltraum-Klassikern.

For sci-fi lovers, this movie is really a blast. It takes some inspiration from such classics like " As for the theme of the movie, the subjects of alienation, solitude, dehumanization and disbelief are risen among others , which often leads to some of the best movies in my opinion , as is the case here too.

All in all, this movie definitely ranks among my personal top all-time sci-fi favorites, and I will presume it will be placed equally high on most sci-fi aficionado's lists.

An excellent debut directorial by Duncan Jones, and clearly one of the 5 best sci-fi movies made in the last 10 years.

Already looking forward to his next feature film, which allegedly is also going to be a sci-fi movie although with a much bigger budget.

Start your free trial. Find showtimes, watch trailers, browse photos, track your Watchlist and rate your favorite movies and TV shows on your phone or tablet!

Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Full Cast and Crew. Astronaut Sam Bell has a quintessentially personal encounter toward the end of his three-year stint on the Moon, where he, working alongside his computer, GERTY, sends back to Earth parcels of a resource that has helped diminish our planet's power problems.

Duncan Jones story , Nathan Parker. What's on the "Mayans M. Share this Rating Title: Use the HTML below.

You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Learn more More Like This. Children of Men The Fifth Element An industrial worker who hasn't slept in a year begins to doubt his own sanity.

Edit Cast Complete credited cast: Sam Bell Kevin Spacey Tess Bell Rosie Shaw Little Eve Adrienne Shaw Edit Details Official Sites: Edit Did You Know?

Trivia The film takes place in Goofs When seen in the sky, the Earth is much larger than it would actually appear to an observer on the Moon's surface as can be seen on shots by any of the real Apollo lunar missions, for example.

The new Sam and I will be back to our programming as soon as I finished rebooting. Gerty, we're not programmed. We're people, do you understand? Connections Referenced in The Sugarcube Critic: Frequently Asked Questions Q: The ancient lunar atmosphere was eventually stripped away by solar winds and dissipated into space.

The Moon's axial tilt with respect to the ecliptic is only 1. Because of this, the Moon's solar illumination varies much less with season, and topographical details play a crucial role in seasonal effects.

No such regions exist at the south pole. Similarly, there are places that remain in permanent shadow at the bottoms of many polar craters, [95] and these " craters of eternal darkness " are extremely cold: This is the coldest temperature in the Solar System ever measured by a spacecraft, colder even than the surface of Pluto.

Scale model of the Earth—Moon system: Sizes and distances are to scale. The Moon makes a complete orbit around Earth with respect to the fixed stars about once every However, because Earth is moving in its orbit around the Sun at the same time, it takes slightly longer for the Moon to show the same phase to Earth, which is about The Moon's orbit is subtly perturbed by the Sun and Earth in many small, complex and interacting ways.

For example, the plane of the Moon's orbit gradually rotates once every These follow-on effects are mathematically described by Cassini's laws. The Moon is exceptionally large relative to Earth: The Moon is in synchronous rotation as it orbits Earth; it rotates about its axis in about the same time it takes to orbit Earth.

This results in it always keeping nearly the same face turned towards Earth. The side of the Moon that faces Earth is called the near side , and the opposite the far side.

The far side is often inaccurately called the "dark side", but it is in fact illuminated as often as the near side: During new moon , the near side is dark.

The Moon had once rotated at a faster rate, but early in its history, its rotation slowed and became tidally locked in this orientation as a result of frictional effects associated with tidal deformations caused by Earth.

In , planetary scientists, using data collected on the much earlier NASA Lunar Prospector mission, found two hydrogen-rich areas on opposite sides of the Moon, probably in the form of water ice.

It is speculated that these patches were the poles of the Moon billions of years ago, before it was tidally locked to Earth. The Moon has an exceptionally low albedo , giving it a reflectance that is slightly brighter than that of worn asphalt.

Despite this, it is the brightest object in the sky after the Sun. The edges of the full moon seem as bright as the centre, without limb darkening , because of the reflective properties of lunar soil , which retroreflects light more towards the Sun than in other directions.

The Moon does appear larger when close to the horizon, but this is a purely psychological effect, known as the moon illusion , first described in the 7th century BC.

The Moon's highest altitude at culmination varies by its phase and time of year. The full moon is highest in the sky during winter for each hemisphere.

The orientation of the Moon's crescent also depends on the latitude of the viewing location; an observer in the tropics can see a smile-shaped crescent Moon.

Zooplankton in the Arctic use moonlight when the Sun is below the horizon for months on end. When the actual reduction is 1.

There has been historical controversy over whether features on the Moon's surface change over time. Today, many of these claims are thought to be illusory, resulting from observation under different lighting conditions, poor astronomical seeing , or inadequate drawings.

However, outgassing does occasionally occur and could be responsible for a minor percentage of the reported lunar transient phenomena.

The Moon's appearance, like the Sun's, can be affected by Earth's atmosphere. The gravitational attraction that masses have for one another decreases inversely with the square of the distance of those masses from each other.

As a result, the slightly greater attraction that the Moon has for the side of Earth closest to the Moon, as compared to the part of the Earth opposite the Moon, results in tidal forces.

Tidal forces affect both the Earth's crust and oceans. The most obvious effect of tidal forces is to cause two bulges in the Earth's oceans, one on the side facing the Moon and the other on the side opposite.

This results in elevated sea levels called ocean tides. As a result, there are two high tides, and two low tides in about 24 hours.

While gravitation causes acceleration and movement of the Earth's fluid oceans, gravitational coupling between the Moon and Earth's solid body is mostly elastic and plastic.

The result is a further tidal effect of the Moon on the Earth that causes a bulge of the solid portion of the Earth nearest the Moon that acts as a torque in opposition to the Earth's rotation.

This "drains" angular momentum and rotational kinetic energy from Earth's spin, slowing the Earth's rotation.

Thus the distance between Earth and Moon is increasing , and the Earth's spin is slowing in reaction. Left to run its course, this tidal drag would continue until the spin of Earth and the orbital period of the Moon matched, creating mutual tidal locking between the two.

As a result, the Moon would be suspended in the sky over one meridian, as is already currently the case with Pluto and its moon Charon.

However, the Sun will become a red giant engulfing the Earth-Moon system long before this occurrence. Moonquakes are much less common and weaker than are earthquakes, although moonquakes can last for up to an hour—significantly longer than terrestrial quakes—because of the absence of water to damp out the seismic vibrations.

The existence of moonquakes was an unexpected discovery from seismometers placed on the Moon by Apollo astronauts from through Eclipses only occur when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are all in a straight line termed " syzygy ".

Solar eclipses occur at new moon , when the Moon is between the Sun and Earth. In contrast, lunar eclipses occur at full moon , when Earth is between the Sun and Moon.

The apparent size of the Moon is roughly the same as that of the Sun, with both being viewed at close to one-half a degree wide.

The Sun is much larger than the Moon but it is the vastly greater distance that gives it the same apparent size as the much closer and much smaller Moon from the perspective of Earth.

The variations in apparent size, due to the non-circular orbits, are nearly the same as well, though occurring in different cycles.

This makes possible both total with the Moon appearing larger than the Sun and annular with the Moon appearing smaller than the Sun solar eclipses.

Because the distance between the Moon and Earth is very slowly increasing over time, [] the angular diameter of the Moon is decreasing.

Also, as it evolves toward becoming a red giant , the size of the Sun, and its apparent diameter in the sky, are slowly increasing.

Likewise, hundreds of millions of years in the future, the Moon will no longer cover the Sun completely, and total solar eclipses will not occur.

Because the Moon's orbit around Earth is inclined by about 5. For an eclipse to occur, the Moon must be near the intersection of the two orbital planes.

Because the Moon is continuously blocking our view of a half-degree-wide circular area of the sky, [m] [] the related phenomenon of occultation occurs when a bright star or planet passes behind the Moon and is occulted: In this way, a solar eclipse is an occultation of the Sun.

Because the Moon is comparatively close to Earth, occultations of individual stars are not visible everywhere on the planet, nor at the same time.

Because of the precession of the lunar orbit, each year different stars are occulted. Understanding of the Moon's cycles was an early development of astronomy: The ancient Greek philosopher Anaxagoras d.

During the Middle Ages , before the invention of the telescope, the Moon was increasingly recognised as a sphere, though many believed that it was "perfectly smooth".

In , Galileo Galilei drew one of the first telescopic drawings of the Moon in his book Sidereus Nuncius and noted that it was not smooth but had mountains and craters.

Telescopic mapping of the Moon followed: The more exact —36 Mappa Selenographica of Wilhelm Beer and Johann Heinrich Mädler , and their associated book Der Mond , the first trigonometrically accurate study of lunar features, included the heights of more than a thousand mountains, and introduced the study of the Moon at accuracies possible in earthly geography.

Spacecraft from the Soviet Union's Luna program were the first to accomplish a number of goals: The first spacecraft to perform a successful lunar soft landing was Luna 9 and the first unmanned vehicle to orbit the Moon was Luna 10 , both in During the late s at the height of the Cold War , the United States Army conducted a classified feasibility study that proposed the construction of a manned military outpost on the Moon called Project Horizon with the potential to conduct a wide range of missions from scientific research to nuclear Earth bombardment.

The study included the possibility of conducting a lunar-based nuclear test. Following President John F. Kennedy 's commitment to a manned moon landing before the end of the decade, the United States, under NASA leadership, launched a series of unmanned probes to develop an understanding of the lunar surface in preparation for manned missions: The manned Apollo program was developed in parallel; after a series of unmanned and manned tests of the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit, and spurred on by a potential Soviet lunar flight , in Apollo 8 made the first manned mission to lunar orbit.

The subsequent landing of the first humans on the Moon in is seen by many as the culmination of the Space Race. Neil Armstrong became the first person to walk on the Moon as the commander of the American mission Apollo 11 by first setting foot on the Moon at Scientific instrument packages were installed on the lunar surface during all the Apollo landings.

Long-lived instrument stations , including heat flow probes, seismometers , and magnetometers , were installed at the Apollo 12 , 14 , 15 , 16 , and 17 landing sites.

Direct transmission of data to Earth concluded in late because of budgetary considerations, [] [] but as the stations' lunar laser ranging corner-cube retroreflector arrays are passive instruments, they are still being used.

Ranging to the stations is routinely performed from Earth-based stations with an accuracy of a few centimetres, and data from this experiment are being used to place constraints on the size of the lunar core.

After the first Moon race there were years of near quietude but starting in the s, many more countries have become involved in direct exploration of the Moon.

In , Japan became the third country to place a spacecraft into lunar orbit with its Hiten spacecraft. The spacecraft released a smaller probe, Hagoromo , in lunar orbit, but the transmitter failed, preventing further scientific use of the mission.

This mission obtained the first near-global topographic map of the Moon, and the first global multispectral images of the lunar surface.

India, Japan, China, the United States, and the European Space Agency each sent lunar orbiters, and especially ISRO 's Chandrayaan-1 has contributed to confirming the discovery of lunar water ice in permanently shadowed craters at the poles and bound into the lunar regolith.

The post-Apollo era has also seen two rover missions: The Moon remains, under the Outer Space Treaty , free to all nations to explore for peaceful purposes.

The European spacecraft SMART-1 , the second ion-propelled spacecraft, was in lunar orbit from 15 November until its lunar impact on 3 September , and made the first detailed survey of chemical elements on the lunar surface.

The ambitious Chinese Lunar Exploration Program began with Chang'e 1 , which successfully orbited the Moon from 5 November until its controlled lunar impact on 1 March Chang'e 2 , beginning in October , reached the Moon more quickly, mapped the Moon at a higher resolution over an eight-month period, then left lunar orbit for an extended stay at the Earth—Sun L2 Lagrangian point , before finally performing a flyby of asteroid Toutatis on 13 December , and then heading off into deep space.

On 14 December , Chang'e 3 landed a lunar lander onto the Moon's surface, which in turn deployed a lunar rover , named Yutu Chinese: This was the first lunar soft landing since Luna 24 in , and the first lunar rover mission since Lunokhod 2 in China intends to launch another rover mission Chang'e 4 before , followed by a sample return mission Chang'e 5 soon after.

Between 4 October and 10 June , the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 's Kaguya Selene mission, a lunar orbiter fitted with a high-definition video camera, and two small radio-transmitter satellites, obtained lunar geophysics data and took the first high-definition movies from beyond Earth orbit.

NASA released photos of the crater on 25 December Upcoming lunar missions include Russia's Luna-Glob: NASA began to plan to resume manned missions following the call by U.

Bush on 14 January for a manned mission to the Moon by and the construction of a lunar base by On 28 February , SpaceX , Vodafone , Nokia and Audi announced a collaboration to install a 4G wireless communication network on the Moon, with the aim of streaming live footage on the surface to Earth.

The decision is regarded as a precedent helping to define regulatory standards for deep-space commercial activity in the future, as thus far companies' operation had been restricted to being on or around Earth.

For many years, the Moon has been recognized as an excellent site for telescopes. A 5,year-old rock carving at Knowth , Ireland, may represent the Moon, which would be the earliest depiction discovered.

In many prehistoric and ancient cultures, the Moon was personified as a deity or other supernatural phenomenon, and astrological views of the Moon continue to be propagated today.

It came to represent the goddess Artemis or Hecate , and via the patronage of Hecate came to be used as a symbol of Byzantium. An iconographic tradition of representing Sun and Moon with faces developed in the late medieval period.

The splitting of the moon Arabic: The Moon's regular phases make it a very convenient timepiece, and the periods of its waxing and waning form the basis of many of the oldest calendars.

Tally sticks , notched bones dating as far back as 20—30, years ago, are believed by some to mark the phases of the Moon. The 7th-century Islamic calendar is an exceptional example of a purely lunar calendar.

Months are traditionally determined by the visual sighting of the hilal, or earliest crescent moon, over the horizon.

The Moon has long been associated with insanity and irrationality; the words lunacy and lunatic popular shortening loony are derived from the Latin name for the Moon, Luna.

Philosophers Aristotle and Pliny the Elder argued that the full moon induced insanity in susceptible individuals, believing that the brain, which is mostly water, must be affected by the Moon and its power over the tides, but the Moon's gravity is too slight to affect any single person.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Earth's natural satellite. For moons in general, see natural satellite.

For other uses, see Moon disambiguation. Regressing by one revolution in Moment of inertia factor. List of lunar deities. Near side of the Moon. Far side of the Moon.

Origin of the Moon and Giant-impact hypothesis. Oceanus Procellarum "Ocean of Storms". Ancient rift valleys — context.

Ancient rift valleys — closeup artist's concept. Internal structure of the Moon. Geology of the Moon and Moon rocks. List of craters on the Moon.

Gravity of the Moon. Magnetic field of the Moon. Atmosphere of the Moon. Orbit of the Moon and Lunar theory.

Lunar observation , Lunar phase , Moonlight , and Earthlight astronomy. Tidal force , Tidal acceleration , Tide , and Theory of tides.

Solar eclipse , Lunar eclipse , and Eclipse cycle. Exploration of the Moon: Early history , Selenography , and Lunar theory.

Robotic exploration of the Moon , List of proposed missions to the Moon , Colonization of the Moon , and List of artificial objects on the Moon.

Luna program and Lunokhod programme. Luna 2 , the first human-made object to reach the surface of the Moon left and Soviet Moon rover Lunokhod 1.

Apollo program and Moon landing. Earthrise Apollo 8 , , taken by William Anders. Moon rock Apollo 17 , Copernicus 's central peaks as observed by the LRO , The Ina formation, Lunar calendar , Lunisolar calendar , Metonic cycle , Blue moon , and Movable feast.

Solar System portal Moon portal Astronomy portal. For more information, see Other moons of Earth. Larger planets tend to have more satellites, both large and small, than smaller planets.

The moon Charon is larger relative to its primary Pluto , but Pluto is now considered to be a dwarf planet.

At present, the diameter of the Sun is increasing at a rate of about five percent per billion years. This is very similar to the rate at which the apparent angular diameter of the Moon is decreasing as it recedes from Earth.

Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. Archived from the original on 23 March Retrieved 31 December Journal of Geophysical Research.

Planetary and Space Science. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. Archived from the original on 6 October Archived from the original on 16 December Retrieved 29 March Archived from the original on 27 May The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology.

Retrieved 23 March When the Bad Bleeds: Archived from the original on 4 September The Book of the Moon. Yet another exotic theory of lunar origin".

Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. Jeffrey 31 December Planetary Science Research Discoveries.

Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology. Archived from the original on 10 June Retrieved 7 April Archived from the original on 8 October Archived from the original on 1 January Archived from the original on 18 April Retrieved 7 May Archived from the original on 9 April Earth and Planetary Science Letters.

Archived from the original on 27 September Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 3 October Archived from the original on 15 March Archived PDF from the original on 15 October The Planet, Satellites, and Magnetosphere.

Gravitational physics and lunar interior and geodesy". Advances in Space Research. Workshop on New Views of the Moon: Implications for excavation of the lunar mantle".

Archived from the original on 20 August Retrieved 12 April Archived from the original on 21 August Rheology and mode of emplacement".

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New insights into mineralogy, history, mode of emplacement, and relation to Orientale Basin evolution from Moon Mineralogy Mapper M3 data from Chandrayaan-1".

Archived from the original on 17 September Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 1 November Archived from the original on 30 January Retrieved 12 May Archived PDF from the original on 11 June Lunar impact-melt data regarding impact history".

Archived from the original on 8 March Retrieved 15 March Lunar Sourcebook, a user's guide to the Moon. Archived from the original on 13 October Springer-Praxis Books in Space Exploration.

Retrieved 28 March Archived from the original on 22 February Evidence for Water Ice at the Lunar Poles". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Archived from the original on 22 January Retrieved 13 April Van Orman 26 May Kerr 12 April Archived from the original PDF on 13 November Retrieved 17 March Archived from the original on 12 September Archived from the original on 8 April Impact Upon Lunar Atmosphere".

Archived from the original on 31 May Archived PDF from the original on 20 February Retrieved 18 August History, status, current problems, and context".

Ahmed; Tirtha Pratim Dasa; P. Pradeepkumara; Neha Naika; Gogulapati Supriya Archived from the original on 19 June

His primary job responsibility is to harvest and periodically rocket back to Earth supplies of helium-3, the current clean and abundant fuel used on Earth.

There is no direct communication link available between the lunar station and Earth, so his only direct real-time interaction is with GERTY, the intelligent computer whose function is to attend to his day to day needs.

With such little human contact and all of it indirect, he feels that three years is far too long to be so isolated; he knows he is beginning to hallucinate as the end of his three years approaches.

All he wants is to return to Earth to be with his wife Tess and their infant daughter Eve, who was born just prior to his leaving for this job.

With two weeks to go, he gets into an accident at one of the mechanical harvesters and is rendered unconscious. Okay, here's the basic plot without the twist-spoiler: A future not long from now ish I think.

Sam Bell, astronaut, is working on a lunar base of some sort. He has been stationed on the base for almost 3 years, his contract nearing an end, and with his flight back to earth scheduled only 14 days away, he can't wait to get back home to see his wife and daughter again.

However, suddenly one of the automated moon-vehicles harvesting rock-samples or whatever goes awry, and he goes outside of the base to investigate it End of basic plot summary.

This is probably his biggest part in a movie EVER, and I doubt if he will ever get a role as big as this again not because he's not capable or worthy of it, but because it was a HUGE performance.

If you're a fan of Rockwell or perhaps of Kevin Spacey's voice , then you will not be disappointed, as they're both great in "Moon". For sci-fi lovers, this movie is really a blast.

It takes some inspiration from such classics like " As for the theme of the movie, the subjects of alienation, solitude, dehumanization and disbelief are risen among others , which often leads to some of the best movies in my opinion , as is the case here too.

All in all, this movie definitely ranks among my personal top all-time sci-fi favorites, and I will presume it will be placed equally high on most sci-fi aficionado's lists.

An excellent debut directorial by Duncan Jones, and clearly one of the 5 best sci-fi movies made in the last 10 years. Already looking forward to his next feature film, which allegedly is also going to be a sci-fi movie although with a much bigger budget.

Start your free trial. Find showtimes, watch trailers, browse photos, track your Watchlist and rate your favorite movies and TV shows on your phone or tablet!

Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Full Cast and Crew. Astronaut Sam Bell has a quintessentially personal encounter toward the end of his three-year stint on the Moon, where he, working alongside his computer, GERTY, sends back to Earth parcels of a resource that has helped diminish our planet's power problems.

Duncan Jones story , Nathan Parker. What's on the "Mayans M. Share this Rating Title: Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin.

Learn more More Like This. Children of Men The Fifth Element An industrial worker who hasn't slept in a year begins to doubt his own sanity.

Sizes and distances are to scale. The Moon makes a complete orbit around Earth with respect to the fixed stars about once every However, because Earth is moving in its orbit around the Sun at the same time, it takes slightly longer for the Moon to show the same phase to Earth, which is about The Moon's orbit is subtly perturbed by the Sun and Earth in many small, complex and interacting ways.

For example, the plane of the Moon's orbit gradually rotates once every These follow-on effects are mathematically described by Cassini's laws.

The Moon is exceptionally large relative to Earth: The Moon is in synchronous rotation as it orbits Earth; it rotates about its axis in about the same time it takes to orbit Earth.

This results in it always keeping nearly the same face turned towards Earth. The side of the Moon that faces Earth is called the near side , and the opposite the far side.

The far side is often inaccurately called the "dark side", but it is in fact illuminated as often as the near side: During new moon , the near side is dark.

The Moon had once rotated at a faster rate, but early in its history, its rotation slowed and became tidally locked in this orientation as a result of frictional effects associated with tidal deformations caused by Earth.

In , planetary scientists, using data collected on the much earlier NASA Lunar Prospector mission, found two hydrogen-rich areas on opposite sides of the Moon, probably in the form of water ice.

It is speculated that these patches were the poles of the Moon billions of years ago, before it was tidally locked to Earth. The Moon has an exceptionally low albedo , giving it a reflectance that is slightly brighter than that of worn asphalt.

Despite this, it is the brightest object in the sky after the Sun. The edges of the full moon seem as bright as the centre, without limb darkening , because of the reflective properties of lunar soil , which retroreflects light more towards the Sun than in other directions.

The Moon does appear larger when close to the horizon, but this is a purely psychological effect, known as the moon illusion , first described in the 7th century BC.

The Moon's highest altitude at culmination varies by its phase and time of year. The full moon is highest in the sky during winter for each hemisphere.

The orientation of the Moon's crescent also depends on the latitude of the viewing location; an observer in the tropics can see a smile-shaped crescent Moon.

Zooplankton in the Arctic use moonlight when the Sun is below the horizon for months on end. When the actual reduction is 1.

There has been historical controversy over whether features on the Moon's surface change over time. Today, many of these claims are thought to be illusory, resulting from observation under different lighting conditions, poor astronomical seeing , or inadequate drawings.

However, outgassing does occasionally occur and could be responsible for a minor percentage of the reported lunar transient phenomena.

The Moon's appearance, like the Sun's, can be affected by Earth's atmosphere. The gravitational attraction that masses have for one another decreases inversely with the square of the distance of those masses from each other.

As a result, the slightly greater attraction that the Moon has for the side of Earth closest to the Moon, as compared to the part of the Earth opposite the Moon, results in tidal forces.

Tidal forces affect both the Earth's crust and oceans. The most obvious effect of tidal forces is to cause two bulges in the Earth's oceans, one on the side facing the Moon and the other on the side opposite.

This results in elevated sea levels called ocean tides. As a result, there are two high tides, and two low tides in about 24 hours.

While gravitation causes acceleration and movement of the Earth's fluid oceans, gravitational coupling between the Moon and Earth's solid body is mostly elastic and plastic.

The result is a further tidal effect of the Moon on the Earth that causes a bulge of the solid portion of the Earth nearest the Moon that acts as a torque in opposition to the Earth's rotation.

This "drains" angular momentum and rotational kinetic energy from Earth's spin, slowing the Earth's rotation. Thus the distance between Earth and Moon is increasing , and the Earth's spin is slowing in reaction.

Left to run its course, this tidal drag would continue until the spin of Earth and the orbital period of the Moon matched, creating mutual tidal locking between the two.

As a result, the Moon would be suspended in the sky over one meridian, as is already currently the case with Pluto and its moon Charon.

However, the Sun will become a red giant engulfing the Earth-Moon system long before this occurrence. Moonquakes are much less common and weaker than are earthquakes, although moonquakes can last for up to an hour—significantly longer than terrestrial quakes—because of the absence of water to damp out the seismic vibrations.

The existence of moonquakes was an unexpected discovery from seismometers placed on the Moon by Apollo astronauts from through Eclipses only occur when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are all in a straight line termed " syzygy ".

Solar eclipses occur at new moon , when the Moon is between the Sun and Earth. In contrast, lunar eclipses occur at full moon , when Earth is between the Sun and Moon.

The apparent size of the Moon is roughly the same as that of the Sun, with both being viewed at close to one-half a degree wide. The Sun is much larger than the Moon but it is the vastly greater distance that gives it the same apparent size as the much closer and much smaller Moon from the perspective of Earth.

The variations in apparent size, due to the non-circular orbits, are nearly the same as well, though occurring in different cycles.

This makes possible both total with the Moon appearing larger than the Sun and annular with the Moon appearing smaller than the Sun solar eclipses.

Because the distance between the Moon and Earth is very slowly increasing over time, [] the angular diameter of the Moon is decreasing.

Also, as it evolves toward becoming a red giant , the size of the Sun, and its apparent diameter in the sky, are slowly increasing.

Likewise, hundreds of millions of years in the future, the Moon will no longer cover the Sun completely, and total solar eclipses will not occur.

Because the Moon's orbit around Earth is inclined by about 5. For an eclipse to occur, the Moon must be near the intersection of the two orbital planes.

Because the Moon is continuously blocking our view of a half-degree-wide circular area of the sky, [m] [] the related phenomenon of occultation occurs when a bright star or planet passes behind the Moon and is occulted: In this way, a solar eclipse is an occultation of the Sun.

Because the Moon is comparatively close to Earth, occultations of individual stars are not visible everywhere on the planet, nor at the same time. Because of the precession of the lunar orbit, each year different stars are occulted.

Understanding of the Moon's cycles was an early development of astronomy: The ancient Greek philosopher Anaxagoras d.

During the Middle Ages , before the invention of the telescope, the Moon was increasingly recognised as a sphere, though many believed that it was "perfectly smooth".

In , Galileo Galilei drew one of the first telescopic drawings of the Moon in his book Sidereus Nuncius and noted that it was not smooth but had mountains and craters.

Telescopic mapping of the Moon followed: The more exact —36 Mappa Selenographica of Wilhelm Beer and Johann Heinrich Mädler , and their associated book Der Mond , the first trigonometrically accurate study of lunar features, included the heights of more than a thousand mountains, and introduced the study of the Moon at accuracies possible in earthly geography.

Spacecraft from the Soviet Union's Luna program were the first to accomplish a number of goals: The first spacecraft to perform a successful lunar soft landing was Luna 9 and the first unmanned vehicle to orbit the Moon was Luna 10 , both in During the late s at the height of the Cold War , the United States Army conducted a classified feasibility study that proposed the construction of a manned military outpost on the Moon called Project Horizon with the potential to conduct a wide range of missions from scientific research to nuclear Earth bombardment.

The study included the possibility of conducting a lunar-based nuclear test. Following President John F. Kennedy 's commitment to a manned moon landing before the end of the decade, the United States, under NASA leadership, launched a series of unmanned probes to develop an understanding of the lunar surface in preparation for manned missions: The manned Apollo program was developed in parallel; after a series of unmanned and manned tests of the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit, and spurred on by a potential Soviet lunar flight , in Apollo 8 made the first manned mission to lunar orbit.

The subsequent landing of the first humans on the Moon in is seen by many as the culmination of the Space Race. Neil Armstrong became the first person to walk on the Moon as the commander of the American mission Apollo 11 by first setting foot on the Moon at Scientific instrument packages were installed on the lunar surface during all the Apollo landings.

Long-lived instrument stations , including heat flow probes, seismometers , and magnetometers , were installed at the Apollo 12 , 14 , 15 , 16 , and 17 landing sites.

Direct transmission of data to Earth concluded in late because of budgetary considerations, [] [] but as the stations' lunar laser ranging corner-cube retroreflector arrays are passive instruments, they are still being used.

Ranging to the stations is routinely performed from Earth-based stations with an accuracy of a few centimetres, and data from this experiment are being used to place constraints on the size of the lunar core.

After the first Moon race there were years of near quietude but starting in the s, many more countries have become involved in direct exploration of the Moon.

In , Japan became the third country to place a spacecraft into lunar orbit with its Hiten spacecraft. The spacecraft released a smaller probe, Hagoromo , in lunar orbit, but the transmitter failed, preventing further scientific use of the mission.

This mission obtained the first near-global topographic map of the Moon, and the first global multispectral images of the lunar surface.

India, Japan, China, the United States, and the European Space Agency each sent lunar orbiters, and especially ISRO 's Chandrayaan-1 has contributed to confirming the discovery of lunar water ice in permanently shadowed craters at the poles and bound into the lunar regolith.

The post-Apollo era has also seen two rover missions: The Moon remains, under the Outer Space Treaty , free to all nations to explore for peaceful purposes.

The European spacecraft SMART-1 , the second ion-propelled spacecraft, was in lunar orbit from 15 November until its lunar impact on 3 September , and made the first detailed survey of chemical elements on the lunar surface.

The ambitious Chinese Lunar Exploration Program began with Chang'e 1 , which successfully orbited the Moon from 5 November until its controlled lunar impact on 1 March Chang'e 2 , beginning in October , reached the Moon more quickly, mapped the Moon at a higher resolution over an eight-month period, then left lunar orbit for an extended stay at the Earth—Sun L2 Lagrangian point , before finally performing a flyby of asteroid Toutatis on 13 December , and then heading off into deep space.

On 14 December , Chang'e 3 landed a lunar lander onto the Moon's surface, which in turn deployed a lunar rover , named Yutu Chinese: This was the first lunar soft landing since Luna 24 in , and the first lunar rover mission since Lunokhod 2 in China intends to launch another rover mission Chang'e 4 before , followed by a sample return mission Chang'e 5 soon after.

Between 4 October and 10 June , the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 's Kaguya Selene mission, a lunar orbiter fitted with a high-definition video camera, and two small radio-transmitter satellites, obtained lunar geophysics data and took the first high-definition movies from beyond Earth orbit.

NASA released photos of the crater on 25 December Upcoming lunar missions include Russia's Luna-Glob: NASA began to plan to resume manned missions following the call by U.

Bush on 14 January for a manned mission to the Moon by and the construction of a lunar base by On 28 February , SpaceX , Vodafone , Nokia and Audi announced a collaboration to install a 4G wireless communication network on the Moon, with the aim of streaming live footage on the surface to Earth.

The decision is regarded as a precedent helping to define regulatory standards for deep-space commercial activity in the future, as thus far companies' operation had been restricted to being on or around Earth.

For many years, the Moon has been recognized as an excellent site for telescopes. A 5,year-old rock carving at Knowth , Ireland, may represent the Moon, which would be the earliest depiction discovered.

In many prehistoric and ancient cultures, the Moon was personified as a deity or other supernatural phenomenon, and astrological views of the Moon continue to be propagated today.

It came to represent the goddess Artemis or Hecate , and via the patronage of Hecate came to be used as a symbol of Byzantium. An iconographic tradition of representing Sun and Moon with faces developed in the late medieval period.

The splitting of the moon Arabic: The Moon's regular phases make it a very convenient timepiece, and the periods of its waxing and waning form the basis of many of the oldest calendars.

Tally sticks , notched bones dating as far back as 20—30, years ago, are believed by some to mark the phases of the Moon.

The 7th-century Islamic calendar is an exceptional example of a purely lunar calendar. Months are traditionally determined by the visual sighting of the hilal, or earliest crescent moon, over the horizon.

The Moon has long been associated with insanity and irrationality; the words lunacy and lunatic popular shortening loony are derived from the Latin name for the Moon, Luna.

Philosophers Aristotle and Pliny the Elder argued that the full moon induced insanity in susceptible individuals, believing that the brain, which is mostly water, must be affected by the Moon and its power over the tides, but the Moon's gravity is too slight to affect any single person.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Earth's natural satellite. For moons in general, see natural satellite.

For other uses, see Moon disambiguation. Regressing by one revolution in Moment of inertia factor. List of lunar deities.

Near side of the Moon. Far side of the Moon. Origin of the Moon and Giant-impact hypothesis. Oceanus Procellarum "Ocean of Storms".

Ancient rift valleys — context. Ancient rift valleys — closeup artist's concept. Internal structure of the Moon. Geology of the Moon and Moon rocks.

List of craters on the Moon. Gravity of the Moon. Magnetic field of the Moon. Atmosphere of the Moon. Orbit of the Moon and Lunar theory.

Lunar observation , Lunar phase , Moonlight , and Earthlight astronomy. Tidal force , Tidal acceleration , Tide , and Theory of tides. Solar eclipse , Lunar eclipse , and Eclipse cycle.

Exploration of the Moon: Early history , Selenography , and Lunar theory. Robotic exploration of the Moon , List of proposed missions to the Moon , Colonization of the Moon , and List of artificial objects on the Moon.

Luna program and Lunokhod programme. Luna 2 , the first human-made object to reach the surface of the Moon left and Soviet Moon rover Lunokhod 1.

Apollo program and Moon landing. Earthrise Apollo 8 , , taken by William Anders. Moon rock Apollo 17 , Copernicus 's central peaks as observed by the LRO , The Ina formation, Lunar calendar , Lunisolar calendar , Metonic cycle , Blue moon , and Movable feast.

Solar System portal Moon portal Astronomy portal. For more information, see Other moons of Earth. Larger planets tend to have more satellites, both large and small, than smaller planets.

The moon Charon is larger relative to its primary Pluto , but Pluto is now considered to be a dwarf planet. At present, the diameter of the Sun is increasing at a rate of about five percent per billion years.

This is very similar to the rate at which the apparent angular diameter of the Moon is decreasing as it recedes from Earth.

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